Mortgages & Home Loans Financing Your Home Purchase How Subject-To Loans Work in Real Estate By Elizabeth Weintraub Elizabeth Weintraub Facebook Twitter Elizabeth Weintraub is a nationally recognized expert in real estate, titles, and escrow. She is a licensed Realtor and broker with more than 40 years of experience in titles and escrow. Her expertise has appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, CBS Evening News, and HGTV's House Hunters. learn about our editorial policies Updated on May 26, 2022 Reviewed by Doretha Clemon Reviewed by Doretha Clemon Doretha Clemons, Ph.D., MBA, PMP, has been a corporate IT executive and professor for 34 years. She is an adjunct professor at Connecticut State Colleges & Universities, Maryville University, and Indiana Wesleyan University. She is a Real Estate Investor and principal at Bruised Reed Housing Real Estate Trust, and a State of Connecticut Home Improvement License holder. learn about our financial review board Share Tweet Pin Email In This Article View All In This Article What Does Buying "Subject-To" Mean in Real Estate? Why Purchase a Subject-to Property? 3 Types of Subject-To Options Subject-to vs. Loan Assumption Pros and Cons The Bottom Line Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Photo: The Balance / Sabrina Jiang Buying a property "subject-to" means a buyer essentially takes over the seller’s remaining mortgage balance without making it official with the lender. It’s a popular strategy among real estate investors. When interest rates rise, it may also be an attractive financing option for general homebuyers. Learn more about buying subject-to, how it works, and the pros and cons of this strategy. Key Takeaways Buying subject-to means the homebuyer is taking over the mortgage payments with no official agreement in place with the lender. Buying a subject-to home is attractive to buyers if they can get a lower interest rate by taking over payments. This arrangement poses risks for the buyer if the lender requires a full loan payoff or if the seller goes into bankruptcy. What Does Buying "Subject-To" Mean in Real Estate? Buying subject-to means buying a home subject-to the existing mortgage. It means that the seller is not paying off the existing mortgage. Instead, the buyer is taking over the payments. The unpaid balance of the existing mortgage is then calculated as part of the buyer's purchase price. For example, suppose the seller took out a mortgage for $200,000. They had paid $150,000 of it before they decided to sell the home. The new buyers would then make payments on the remaining $50,000. Under a subject-to agreement, the buyer continues making payments to the seller’s mortgage company. However, there’s no official agreement in place with the lender. The buyer has no legal obligation to make the payments. Should the buyer fail to repay the loan, the home could be lost to foreclosure. However, it would be in the original mortgagee’s name (i.e., the seller's). Reasons a Buyer May Purchase a Subject-To Property The biggest perk of buying subject-to real estate is that it reduces the costs to buy the home. There are no closing costs, origination fees, broker commissions, or other costs. For the real estate investor who plans to rent or re-sell the property down the line, that means more room for profits. For most homebuyers, the primary reason for buying subject-to properties is to take over the seller's existing interest rate. If present interest rates are at 4% and a seller has a 2% fixed interest rate, that 2% variance can make a huge difference in the buyer's monthly payment. For example: A $200,000 mortgage at a 2% interest rate is amortized at a payment of $739.24 per month.A $200,000 mortgage at a 4% interest rate is amortized at a payment of $954.83 per month.The monthly savings to a buyer under these circumstances is $215.59 or $2,587.08 per year. Another reason that certain buyers are interested in purchasing a home subject-to is they might not qualify for a traditional loan with favorable interest rates. Taking over the existing mortgage loan might offer better terms and lower interest costs over time. Note Buying subject-to homes is a smart way for real estate investors to get deals. Investors may use county records to locate borrowers who are currently in foreclosure. Making them a low, subject-to offer can help them avoid foreclosure (and its impact on their credit) and result in a high-profit property for the investor. 3 Types of Subject-To Options Not all subject-to loans look the same. Typically, there are three types of subject-to options. A Straight Subject-To, Cash-To Loan The most common type of subject-to occurs when a buyer pays in cash the difference between the purchase price and the seller's existing loan balance. For example, if the seller's existing loan balance is $150,000, and the sales price is $200,000, the buyer must give the seller $50,000. A Straight Subject-To With Seller Carryback Seller carrybacks, also known as "seller financing" or "owner financing," are most commonly found in the form of a second mortgage. A seller carryback could also be a land contract or a lease option sale instrument. For example, suppose the home's sales price is $200,000, with an existing loan balance of $150,000. The buyer is making a down payment of $20,000. The seller would carry the remaining balance of $30,000 at a separate interest rate and terms negotiated between the parties. The buyer would agree to make one payment to the seller's lender and a separate payment at a different interest rate to the seller. Wrap-Around Subject-To A wrap-around subject-to gives the seller an override of interest, because the seller makes money on the existing mortgage balance. A wrap-around is another loan that contains the first, and it can be seller-financed. Using the example above, suppose the existing mortgage carries an interest rate of 2%. If the sales price is $200,000, and the buyer puts down $20,000, the seller's carryback would be $180,000. By charging the buyer 3%, the seller makes 1% on the existing mortgage of $150,000 and 3% on the balance of $30,000. The buyer would pay 3% on $180,000. Subject-To vs. Loan Assumption In a subject-to transaction, neither the seller nor the buyer tells the existing lender that the seller has sold the property. The buyer begins to make the payments and does not obtain the bank's permission to take over the loan. Warning Lenders put special verbiage into their mortgages and trust deeds that give the lender the right to accelerate the loan and invoke a “due-on” clause in the event of a transfer. It means the loan balance is due in full, and that could put the new homeowner at risk of losing the home if the lender finds out about the transfer. Not every bank will call a loan due and payable upon transfer. In certain situations, some banks are simply happy that somebody—anybody—is making the payments. But banks can exercise their right to call a loan, due to the acceleration clause in the mortgage or trust deed, which is a risk for the buyer. If the buyer doesn't have the cash in hand to pay off the loan upon the bank's demand, it could initiate foreclosure. Loan assumption, on the other hand, is different from a subject-to transaction. If a buyer makes a loan assumption, the buyer formally assumes the loan with the bank's permission. This method means that the seller's name is removed from the loan, and the buyer qualifies for the loan, just like any other kind of financing. Generally, the bank charges the buyer an assumption fee to process a loan assumption. The fee is much less than the fees to obtain a conventional loan. VA loans and FHA loans allow for a loan assumption. However, most conventional loans do not. Pros and Cons of Buying Subject-To Real Estate Subject-to properties mean a faster, easier home purchase, no costly or hard-to-qualify-for mortgage loans, and potentially more profits if you're looking to flip or resell the home. On the downside, subject-to homes do put buyers at risk. Since the property is still legally the seller's liability, it could be seized should they enter bankruptcy. Additionally, the lender could require full payoff if it notices that the home has transferred hands. There can also be complications with home insurance policies. Pros Fewer upfront costs Faster sale Easier to qualify May mean more profits for investors May mean more favorable interest rates Cons Home could be seized if seller goes into bankruptcy Lender could accelerate the loan and require full payoff Insuring home could be complicated The Bottom Line While a subject-to sale may seem desirable for some, it comes with risks for buyers and sellers. Before entering into this type of agreement, you should understand the various options along with their benefits and drawbacks. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) How do you find subject-to real estate deals? To find subject-to sellers, you need to look for homeowners selling distressed properties, such as foreclosures, short sales, and auctioned homes. You can find these with online search tools or with the help of a real estate agent. Why would a seller agree to a subject-to mortgage? Sellers agree to subject-to mortgages when they are desperate to sell a home quickly. They may be in danger of foreclosure or unable to keep up with their mortgage payments. It may not be an ideal scenario, but it can make for a quick sale by keeping the bank out of the equation. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Tell us why! Other Submit Sources The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. North Carolina General Assembly. "General Assembly of North Carolina Session 2007 House DRH80347-RU-10," Page 2. Keller Williams. ""Subject To" Real Estate Deals Explained." Than Merrill. "Everything You Should Know About a Subject To Mortgage." Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. "8000 - Miscellaneous Statutes and Regulations." Penny Mac. "Understanding Assumable Mortgages." Department of Veterans Affairs. "Rights of VA Loan Borrowers." Department of Housing and Urban Development. "Chapter 7: Assumptions," Page 7-1. National Real Estate Insurance Group. "How to Insure Your “Subject to” Property."