What Is the Consumer Confidence Index?

Learn How Optimistic People Are About the Economy

African American woman reading newspaper in cafe

Mark Edward Atkinson/Tracey Lee/Getty Images

The Consumer Confidence Index is a measurement of Americans’ attitudes about current and future economic conditions. It tells you how optimistic people are about the economy and their ability to find jobs.

By The Numbers

  • The Consumer Confidence Index is calculated by surveying a sample of U.S. households about their feelings about business and employment situations and comparing their answers to 1985, which is used as the baseline.
  • In December, the Consumer Confidence Index took a positive turn after two months of declines. The index is at 108.3, a nearly seven-point jump from the month prior.
  • Consumers are feeling confident about current economic conditions, but near-future expectations are still hovering around recession levels.

What Is the Current Consumer Confidence Index?

Non-partisan think tank The Conference Board reports the Consumer Confidence Index each month.

The Board bases the index on a monthly survey of 3,000 households. The report gives details about consumer attitudes and buying intentions. It provides a national summary and a breakdown by age, income, and region of the country.

How Does the Consumer Confidence Index Work?

The Conference Board created the index in 1967. At that time, the survey was only conducted twice a month by mail and was calculated differently.

Now, confidence is measured through a survey that is conducted online and compared to answers from 1985. If the most recent index is above 100, then consumers are more confident than they were in 1985. If it's below 100, they are less confident than during that time.

The overall Consumer Confidence Index is a composite of two other indexes — the present situation index and the expectations index.

Present Situation Index

The Present Situation Index measures the response to two questions the survey asks:

  • How would you rate the present business conditions? 
  • What would you say about available jobs in your area right now?

Expectations Index

The Expectations Index reports on respondents' predictions for business conditions and available jobs six months from now. It also measures whether those surveyed think their incomes will be higher, lower, or about the same in six months.

How the Consumer Confidence Index Affects You

Consumer confidence is the primary driver of demand in the U.S. economy. If people are uncertain about the future, they will buy less. That slows economic growth. When trust in the future is high, people are more willing to shop. That increases consumer spending, which is almost 70% of U.S. gross domestic product. The other components of GDP are business investments, government spending, and net exports.

If confidence increases too much, then people will spend more instead of saving. It creates higher demand that could trigger inflation. To stop it, the Federal Reserve will raise interest rates. That slows economic growth. It also increases the value of the dollar. That reduces exports because they are now priced higher in foreign markets. It makes imports cheaper, which also reduces inflation.

The Consumer Confidence Index is a lagging indicator. That means it is not good at predicting future economic trends. If anything, it follows them.

Most people don’t feel that the economy has changed until months later. For example, even when a recession is over, people don’t feel it. Many are still unemployed. Others are in debt they incurred while they were jobless. Some others have lost their homes. They are uncertain whether the economic climate has improved.


The lag also occurs when a recession begins. People still feel confident. It takes time before they lose their jobs or homes. Even if they’ve lost a job, they feel that they can find a new one as quickly as they did a few years ago.

It might take six months before they realize there aren’t any jobs. By that time, they’ve gone into debt and maybe defaulted on their mortgage.

The survey also asks how easy it is to find jobs. Usually, it doesn’t become difficult to find work until after the economy has turned. That’s because unemployment is also a lagging indicator. The last thing managers want to do is lay off their workers. They cut every other cost first. By the time they begin layoffs, the recession is already underway.

The Bottom Line

Investors and stock market analysts often monitor the Consumer Confidence Index closely. They want to get an idea of whether consumer spending will increase or decrease. Any rise can spur business spending to meet the demand. That increases earnings and stock prices. For that reason, investors are more likely to buy stocks if the Consumer Confidence Index rises.

The stock market can move dramatically on the day the index is published, but that will probably only happen if there is a lot of uncertainty about the economy. Investors welcome any added insight the Consumer Confidence Index can provide.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is considered a good consumer confidence score?

The Consumer Confidence Index uses the 1985 report as a baseline for comparison, because it was a solid 100. The score is relative, so anything above 100 means consumers feel more optimistic about the economy than they did in 1985 and anything below 100 means they feel less confident than in 1985.

Is the Consumer Confidence Index accurate?

The Conference Board takes surveys monthly, of over 3,000 households of varying demographic and socioeconomic data. The frequency of the report, large sample size, and diversity of data, do contribute to its accuracy, but as with all survey-based studies it is only an estimation. Observing changes in the CCI can be a useful economic indicator.

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The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. The Conference Board. "U.S. Consumer Confidence."

  2. The Conference Board. "Consumer Confidence Survey Technical Note - February 2011."

  3. The Conference Board. "Consumer Confidence Survey: Technical Note – May 2021," Page 2.

  4. Bureau of Economic Analysis. “National Income and Product Accounts: Table 1.1.6. Real Gross Domestic Product, Chained Dollars."

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