2022-2023 Federal Income Tax Rates

Tax Rates for Your 2022 Taxes Filed in 2023

Young woman sitting and finishing work in her Downtown Los Angeles apartment

lechatnoir / Getty Images

The U.S. government taxes personal income on a progressive graduated scale—the more you earn, the higher the percentage you'll pay in taxes. Personal income tax rates begin at 10% for the tax year 2022—the return due in 2023—then gradually increase to 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, and 35% before reaching a top rate of 37%.

Each tax rate applies to a specific range of income referred to as a “tax bracket.” Where each tax bracket begins and ends depends on your filing status. Charts below show which tax rates apply to which filing status and taxable income amount. Remember: Taxable income is what's left after you claim various deductions.

Key Takeaways

  • The tax rate you pay varies according to your filing status and income.
  • Your marginal tax rate is different from your average tax rate.
  • You’re required to pay capital gains tax on property and investments that you sell, and the amount of capital gains tax you pay depends on your filing status and income.
  • Social Security and Medicare are additional taxes you’re likely required to pay.

How Tax Rates Work

The circumstances of your life determine your filing status, such as whether you're married, single, or have children or other dependents. Tax rates can also vary, depending on the type of income being taxed. Ordinary tax rates apply to most incomes, but a separate tax rate schedule applies to income derived from long-term capital gains.

It’s important to note that the bracket you fall into is not the rate applied to all of the income you earn. For example, if your taxable income is $50,000 and you’re a single filer, you fall into the 22% bracket. But that 22% rate is only applied to the amount of income you earned over the lower threshold for that tax rate and the tax year. For the tax year 2022, you'd pay 22% on income over $41,775. The 12% rate would be applied to your income that falls between $10,275 and $41,775, and the 10% rate is applied to the remainder of your income that is less than $10,275.

This is how graduated tax rates work; they apply to all filers.

When you know which bracket you fall into, you can determine how much you’ll be taxed on additional income, like from a second job or side gig, until that income reaches the next bracket. This is also called your "marginal tax rate." If you’re single, and your taxable income is $50,000, your marginal rate is 22%. 

You can also use tax rates to figure out how much tax you'll save by increasing your deductions. A taxpayer in the 24% tax bracket will save $0.24 in federal tax for every $1 spent on a tax-deductible expense if they itemize.


These tax rates and brackets apply to your 2022 tax return, which is due April 18, 2023. Tax rates and brackets are adjusted annually to keep pace with inflation.

Income Tax Rates for Single Filers

Tax Rate Taxable Income
10% $0 to $10,275
12% $10,276 to $41,775
22% $41,776 to $89,075
24% $89,076 to $170,050
32% $170,051 to $215,950
35% $215,951 to $539,900
37% $539,901+

"Single" filing status means you’re not married or were considered legally separated on the last day of the tax year.

Income Tax Rates for Heads of Household

Tax Rate Taxable Income
10% $0 to $14,650
12% $14,651 to $55,900
22% $55,901 to $89,050
24% $89,051 to $170,050
32% $170,051 to $215,950
35% $215,951 to $539,900
37% $539,901+

The head-of-household filing status applies to taxpayers who are "considered unmarried." They must have at least one dependent and pay more than half the cost of keeping up their home for the year. Married taxpayers may be able to qualify if they haven’t lived with their spouse at any time during the last six months of the year.


The rules for this filing status are strict. If you’re not sure whether you qualify, speak with a tax professional.

Income Tax Rates for Married Taxpayers Filing Separately

Tax Rate Taxable Income
10% $0 to $10,275
12% $10,276 to $41,775
22% $41,776 to $89,075
24% $89,076 to $170,050
32% $170,051 to $215,950
35% $215,951 to $323,925
37% $323,926+

This is your filing status if you're legally married, don't qualify as head of household, and don't want to file a tax return jointly with your spouse. Although the tax brackets are pretty much the same as for single filers, you'll notice that high earners take a bit of a hit when they file separately.

Income Tax Rates for Married Taxpayers Filing Jointly

Tax Rate Taxable Income
10% $0 to $20,550
12% $20,551 to $83,550
22% $83,551 to $178,150
24% $178,151 to $340,100
32% $340,101 to $431,900
35% $431,901 to $647,850
37% $647,851+

This is your status if you're married and filing a tax return with your spouse. You combine your incomes and deductions.


If your spouse died within the last two years, and you haven't remarried, you may be able to claim the qualifying widow(er) status. The Internal Revenue Code provides that widows/widowers are entitled to the same tax provisions they'd enjoy if they were still able to file jointly with their spouses.

Each Tax Rate Applies to a Portion of Income

As mentioned above, your marginal tax rate—the bracket that your income amount falls into—is not applied to all of your earned income.

This tax rate chart shows how the mechanics of this work.

If your taxable income is between: Your tax is:
$0 to $10,275 10%, up to $1,027.50
$10,276 and $41,775 $1,027.50 + 12% of the amount over $10,275, up to $4,807.50
$41,776 and $86,375 $5,895.50 + 22% of the amount over $41,775, up to $9,811.78
$86,376 and $170,050 $15,707.28 + 24% of the amount over $86,375, up to $20,081.76
$170,051 to $215,950 $35,789.04 + 32% of the amount over $170,050, up to $14,688
$215,951 to $539,900 $50,477.04 + 35% of the amount over $209,425, up to $109,961.25
$539,901+ $157,804.25 + $37% of the amount over $523,600

Let's say you earned $100,000 of taxable income in 2022. Your total tax bill for 2022 could be calculated as follows:

  • $1,027.50 + $4,807.50 + $9,811 + $3,270 = $18,916

So, if your taxable income is $100,000, and you’re a single filer, you would owe the IRS $18,916 before any tax deductions or tax credits. Note that while your marginal tax rate is 24% in this example, your average tax rate is actually about 19% ($18,916 / $100,000 = 0.189 = 19%).

Capital Gains Tax Rates

Long-term capital gains result from the sale of property you've held for more than one year, such as a stock portfolio, while short-term capital gains result from assets you've owned for one year or less and are taxed as ordinary income.

Long-term capital gains have their own tax brackets to determine how they are taxed. These income spans apply to your overall income, including both capital gains and ordinary income.

The long-term capital gains tax rates for single filers for the 2022 tax year are:

Income Range Long Term Capital Gains Tax Rate
$0 to $41,675 0%
$41,676 to $459,750 15%
$459,751 or more 20%


The long-term capital gains rate for those married filing separately is the same as for single filers except that the 15% bracket tops out at $258,600.

The long-term capital gains tax rates for head-of-household filers for the 2022 tax year are:

Income Range Long Term Capital Gains Tax Rate
$0 to $55,800 0%
$55,801 to $488,500 15%
$488,501 or more 20%

For married filers of joint returns, the capital gains tax rates for the 2022 tax year are:

Income Range Long Term Capital Gains Tax Rate
$0 to $83,350 0%
$83,351 to $517,200 15%
$517,201 or more 20%

Capital gains resulting from certain investments are also subject to the net investment income tax at a rate of 3.8%. This tax may apply if filers have net investment income and a modified adjusted gross income over the following threshold amounts, according to their filing status.

  • Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er) with dependent child: $250,000 or more
  • Single or head of household: $200,000 or more
  • Married filing separately: $125,000 or more

Social Security Tax Rates

Another tax that probably applies to your income is the Social Security tax. The Social Security tax rate is 12.4% on wages (you pay half, and your employer pays half) up to the Social Security wage base, which is $147,000 in 2022. Anything above the wage base amount is not subject to Social Security tax.

The maximum Social Security tax paid by employees is $9,114 for the tax year 2022, or 6.2% of $147,000. Self-employed filers pay the full 12.4%, for a maximum of $18,228 for tax year 2022.

This wage base is adjusted annually to keep up with inflation. For the 2023 tax year, the wage base for the Social Security tax is $160,200.

Medicare Tax Rates

The Medicare tax rate is 2.9% on wages and self-employment income. There's no wage base for this tax—all ordinary income is taxed at that rate. Employees pay half (1.45%) and employers pay the other half (1.45%). Self-employed individuals pay the whole 2.9%. 

The Additional Medicare Tax rate is 0.9% on wages and self-employment income, but it's only applicable to incomes over $200,000. Employers don’t have to match any portion of this tax.


Tax laws change periodically, so you should always consult with a tax professional for the most up-to-date advice. Keep an eye on announcements from the IRS, and take the time to understand all of your sources of income so that you'll be prepared come tax season.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the standard deduction?

When you file your federal taxes, you can choose between itemizing your deductions and taking the standard deduction. The standard deduction is the portion of your income that isn't subject to taxes. It reduces your tax bill. The standard deduction is a fixed dollar amount based on your filing status, whether you're age 65 or older, whether you're blind, and other factors.

What is the short-term capital gains tax rate?

The short-term capital gains tax is a tax you pay on profits from the sales of an asset you've held for one year or less. Short-term capital gains are taxed as ordinary income, which means they're subject to the same tax rates and brackets as your regular income.

Was this page helpful?
The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. IRS. "IRS Provides Tax Inflation Adjustments for Tax Year 2022."

  2. Tax Foundation. "2022 Tax Brackets."

  3. TurboTax. "2020 and 2021 Tax Brackets: Find Your Federal Tax Rate Schedules."

  4. IRS. "Rev. Proc. 2021-45," Page 8.

  5. IRS. "Questions and Answers on the Net Investment Income Tax."

  6. Social Security. "Contribution and Benefit Base."

  7. IRS. "Topic No. 751 Social Security and Medicare Withholding Rates."

Related Articles