US & World Economies US Economy GDP Growth & Recessions Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke The Great Depression Expert Who Prevented the Second Great Depression By Kimberly Amadeo Kimberly Amadeo Kimberly Amadeo is an expert on U.S. and world economies and investing, with over 20 years of experience in economic analysis and business strategy. She is the President of the economic website World Money Watch. As a writer for The Balance, Kimberly provides insight on the state of the present-day economy, as well as past events that have had a lasting impact. learn about our editorial policies Updated on March 6, 2021 Reviewed by Erika Rasure Reviewed by Erika Rasure Erika Rasure, is the Founder of Crypto Goddess, the first learning community curated for women to learn how to invest their money—and themselves—in crypto, blockchain, and the future of finance and digital assets. She is a financial therapist and is globally-recognized as a leading personal finance and cryptocurrency subject matter expert and educator. learn about our financial review board Fact checked by Hans Jasperson Fact checked by Hans Jasperson Hans Jasperson has over a decade of experience in public policy research, with an emphasis on workforce development, education, and economic justice. His research has been shared with members of the U.S. Congress, federal agencies, and policymakers in several states. learn about our editorial policies Share Tweet Pin Email In This Article View All In This Article Why Bernanke Is Important What the Reserve Chairman Does Bernanke and the Financial Crisis Criticisms of Bernanke Bernanke After the Fed Early Career Photo: McNamee / Getty Images Ben Shalom Bernanke was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from February 1, 2006, to January 31, 2014. He replaced Alan Greenspan. Congress appointed Bernanke for his knowledge of how monetary policy contributed to the Great Depression and his belief in inflation targeting. Bernanke created many innovative Fed tools to prevent a global depression in the early stages of the banking crisis. He led the Fed in taking on new roles, such as bailing out Bear Stearns and insurance giant American International Group Inc. The Fed loaned $540 billion to money market funds to stop a global panic. Bernanke also led the push to expand open market operations when lowering interest rates alone wasn't enough to end the 2008 financial crisis. He was responsible for Operation Twist and the other phases of quantitative easing. Bernanke's successor was former Federal Reserve Vice-Chair Janet Yellen. On February 3, 2014, Bernanke became a Distinguished Fellow in Residence in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. He is affiliated with the Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy to analyze and educate the public on fiscal and monetary policy. Why Bernanke Is Important to the U.S. Economy As Fed chair, Bernanke was responsible for guiding monetary policy for the U.S. economy. That was more critical through the last decade, as fiscal policy became hamstrung by the national debt. As the spokesperson for the Fed, Bernanke was the country's premier economic expert. His words swayed the stock market and the value of the dollar. During his tenure as Fed Chair, Ben Bernanke was arguably the most important person in the United States and, therefore, the global economy. What the Federal Reserve Chairman Does Although the Federal Open Market Committee sets and executes monetary policy, the Chairman has traditionally taken an active leadership role. The Chairman is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is expected to be more independent than an elected official who answers to voters. That allows the Fed to take a long-term view and not react to short-term political pressure. The Fed's tools, such as the fed funds rate, act slowly over six months. The U.S. economy is like a large ship; it needs gradual direction. Bernanke and the 2008 Financial Crisis Under Bernanke, the Federal Reserve made very creative use of its tools. Prior Chairmen used only the fed funds rate. They raised it to stem inflation or lowering it to prevent a recession. Between September 2007 and December 2008, Bernanke decisively lowered the rate 10 times, from 5.25% to 0%. But this wasn't enough to restore liquidity to banks panicked by defaulting subprime mortgages. These loans had been repackaged and sold in mortgage-backed securities that were so complicated that no one understood who had bad debt. As a result, banks stopped lending each other the funds needed to meet the Fed's reserve requirement. In response, Bernanke relaxed the requirements, lowered the discount rate, and finally provided credit itself through the discount window. When this wasn't enough, Bernanke created the Term Auction Facility in December 2007. The TAF lent billions to banks, taking on bad debt as collateral. The TAF was meant to be temporary until the banks marked down the bad debt and started lending to each other again. When this didn't happen, the TAF grew larger, reaching a total of $3.8 trillion by the end of the program. Bernanke worked with central bankers around the world to restore liquidity when credit markets froze. He added billions in dollar credit swap lines. These are agreements to keep a supply of dollars available to trade to other central banks for overnight and short-term lending. It was necessary because panicked banks were hoarding cash. They were afraid to lend to each other because they didn't want to get stuck with derivatives based on sub-prime mortgages. In April 2008, the Fed held its first emergency weekend meeting in 30 years to guarantee Bear Stearns' bad loans so JP Morgan would buy it. That prevented a default on $10 trillion in Bear Stearns' holdings, and the banking community relaxed for a few months. By the second quarter of 2008, the economy was growing. Many thought the disaster was averted. In September 2008, the world's largest insurance company, AIG, announced it was going bankrupt. AIG insured trillions of dollars of mortgages throughout the world. If it fell, it would have disrupted every bank, hedge fund, and pension fund that had mortgage-backed securities as an asset. The Fed, under Bernanke's leadership, agreed to bail out AIG. Criticisms Many legislators and economists criticized "Helicopter Ben" for injecting untold trillions into the economy, potentially triggering inflation, and expanding the debt. Others fault him for not predicting the recession in time. He was criticized for hiding the identities of banks who received TAF loans. Former Representative Ron Paul, R-TX, and others called for a Fed audit to reveal the names of these banks. For these reasons, some legislators opposed his reappointment as Federal Reserve Chairman for a second term in January 2010. President Obama easily reappointed him. Bernanke After the Fed Bernanke joined the Brookings Institute as a Distinguished Fellow in Residence on February 3, 2014. He advises the Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy to better educate the public on fiscal and monetary policy. He will also suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of those policies. Note Bernanke wrote a book about his tenure as Chairman entitled The Courage to Act. Early Career Bernanke received a B.A. in economics from Harvard University in 1975 and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979. He taught at Stanford Business School until 1985 when he became a professor at the Economics Department at Princeton University. He became chair there in 1996. In 2002, Bernanke joined the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and became chair in 2006. He was chair of the president's Council of Economic Advisers in 2005. In 2009, he was named the “Time Magazine Person of the Year.” Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Tell us why! Other Submit Sources The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. "Operation Twist." Federal Reserve Bank of New York. "Money Market Investor Funding Facility: Frequently Asked Questions." Brookings Institution. "Ben S. Bernanke." Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Board Members." Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Open Market Operations." Government Accountability Office. "Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Policies and Processes for Managing Emergency Assistance," Page 131. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. "Dollar Illiquidity and Central Bank Swap Arrangements During the Global Financial Crisis," Page 4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Bear Stearns, JPMorgan Chase, And Maiden Lane LLC." Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "American International Group (AIG), Maiden Lane II And III." National Bureau of Economic Research. "Fighting Crises," Page 1. The London School of Economics and Political Science. "The Federal Reserve as Global Lender of Last Resort, 2007-2010," Pages 1-5. United States Senate. "Roll Call Vote 111th Congress - 2nd Session." Time. "Person of the Year 2009."