How the Stock Market Affects the U.S. Economy

Even if you don't invest, the stock market's health affects you

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The stock market is an excellent economic indicator for the U.S. economy. It reflects how well all listed companies are doing. If investors are confident, they will buy stocks, stock mutual funds, or stock options. Some experts believe markets predict what the savviest investors think the economy will be doing in about six months.

What Makes the U.S. Stock Market Attractive

U.S. financial markets are very sophisticated and make it easier to take a company public than in other countries. Information on companies is also easy to obtain. That raises the trust of investors from around the world. As a result, the U.S. stock market attracts the most investors. It’s an attractive place for U.S. companies to go when they are ready to grow.

3 Ways That Stock Markets Affect the Economy

Stock markets affect the economy in three critical ways:

  1. They allow small investors to invest in the economy.
  2. They help savers beat inflation.
  3. They help businesses fund growth.

Allowing Small Investors to Invest in the Economy

Stocks allow the individual investor to own part of a successful company. Without stock markets, only large private equity investors and financial institutions could profit from America's free market economy.

Helping Savers Beat Inflation

Investing in the stock market helps savers beat inflation over time. The rule of thumb is that stock prices increase 7% a year on average after taking inflation into account. That's enough to compensate most investors for the additional risk of owning stocks rather than bonds (or keeping the money in a savings account).


Stocks provide the capital for companies to grow large enough to gain a competitive advantage through economies of scale.

Helping Businesses Fund Growth

Growing, successful businesses need capital to fund growth and the stock market is a key source. In order to raise money this way, owners must sell part of the company, and to do so they "take the company public" through an initial public offering (IPO) of the company's shares.

An IPO raises a lot of cash. It also signals that the firm is successful enough to afford the IPO process. The drawback is that the founders no longer own the company; the stockholders do. However, founders can retain a controlling interest in the company if they own 51% of the shares.


Stocks indicate how valuable investors think a company is. When stock prices rise, it means investors believe earnings will improve. Falling stock prices mean investors have lost confidence in the company's ability to profit.

How a Stock Market Crash Affects the Economy

Stock prices rise in the expansion phase of the business cycle. Since the stock market is a vote of confidence, a crash can devastate economic growth. Lower stock prices mean less wealth for businesses, pension funds, and individual investors. Companies can't get as much funding for operations and expansion.


When retirement fund values fall, it reduces consumer spending. A stock market crash will adversely affect the nation’s gross domestic product as personal consumption and business investment are some of the major components of GDP.

If stock prices stay depressed long enough, new businesses can't get funds to grow. Companies that had invested their cash in stocks won't have enough to pay employees, or fund pension plans. Older workers may find that they don't have enough money to retire. 

The Stock Market Is Not the Economy

Despite its critical role in the economy, the stock market is not the same as the economy. The stock market is driven by the emotions of investors. They can exhibit irrational exuberance. It occurs during an asset bubble and the peak of the business cycle. They become overly optimistic even though there is no hard data to support it. The peak occurs right before a crash.

Investors confused the stock market and the economy during the Roaring Twenties. They didn't realize a recession had begun in August 1929. They kept driving stocks higher until the October 1929 market crash. Many other factors caused the Great Depression. The depression ended in 1939, but the stock market didn't recover until the 1950s.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How does a stock market collapse affect consumption?

Stock market crashes decrease national consumption. When stock prices collapse, investors do not invest as much, which may give companies less capital to spend on labor, goods, and services. The effects ripple throughout the economy, putting downward pressure on consumption levels.

What time does the stock market open and close?

In the United States, the stock market opens at 9:30 a.m. EST every weekday, except for holidays, and it closes at 4 p.m. Some brokerages may allow you to trade outside of those hours with extended hours sessions.

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The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. American Enterprise Institute. "The Stock Market in 100-Year Perspective."

  2. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. "What Are Business Cycles and How Do They Affect the Economy?"

  3. NBER. "Herd Mentality Takes Over in Market Crisis."

  4. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. "Has the Stock Market Crash Reduced Consumer Spending?" Page 7.

  5. Office of Investor Education and Advocacy. "Investor Bulletin: After-Hours Trading."

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