Taking out a loan from your 401(k) plan can be the financial lifeline you need when you incur a large and unexpected debt. Tapping into your retirement account is a move that shouldn't be taken lightly, though, and you should carefully consider the pros and cons.
- A 401(k) loan allows you to borrow money from your retirement funds, which you then must pay back with interest.
- The loan doesn't count as debt on your credit report, and you don't pay penalties or taxes on it as an early withdrawal.
- This is generally a cheaper, easier option than taking out other loans, but you will forfeit some investment gains as long as the money isn't in your 401(k).
Pros and Cons of Taking a 401(k) Loan
There's no loan application.
No minimum credit score is required.
The money isn't counted as a debt on your credit report.
It may be cheaper than borrowing from a bank.
You won't pay income tax or a penalty tax on the withdrawn amount.
You repay the loan with automatic paycheck deductions.
Not all employers permit loans from their plan.
There's a limit on how much you can borrow.
You may lose investment gains from the money you withdrew.
You may feel tethered to your employer for longer than you want.
Your withdrawn money will no longer be protected in the event you go bankrupt.
Pros of Borrowing From Your 401(k) Explained
There are several reasons why tapping your 401(k) for needed cash makes sense.
No Loan Application
Because you're taking your own money out of your own account, you don't have to apply for a loan to borrow against your 401(k), and you may not have to give an explanation for why you need the money. You still have to provide some information to your plan's administrator, but it's not as complex a process as applying for a loan from a bank or credit union.
Credit Scores and Credit Reports
Similarly, because you're accessing your own saved money, your credit score—a number that's used to quantify your creditworthiness to potential lenders—doesn't affect your ability to withdraw the money. In addition, the borrowing of funds doesn't result in a hard inquiry—which occurs when a lender wants to take a look at your credit report—so you won't experience a resulting dip in your credit score.
Your plan administrator doesn't report your repayments to the three major credit reporting agencies—Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion—so if for some reason you don't repay all of the money, your credit score and reports won't be affected.
Lower Interest Rate
You should be able to borrow at a lower rate than you would get from a bank. The typical interest rate you will have to pay is the prime rate plus 1% or 2%. As of January 2022, the prime rate—the rate banks charge their least-risky corporate clients—was 3.25%.
No Taxes Owed
The Internal Revenue Service does not require you to pay income tax or a 10% early-withdrawal penalty on the money you take out, as long as you pay it back in time; this generally is within five years, but may be as long as 15 years if you took out the money to purchase a home.
There is typically no penalty for repaying the money to your 401(k) early, before the end of the loan term.
You repay the money using deductions taken out of your paycheck. As long as you remain at the same employer during the repayment period, the process should be easy.
Cons of Borrowing From Your 401(k) Explained
There are also valid reasons why it might not be a good idea to pull money from your retirement account.
Loans Might Not Be Permitted
Some employers don't allow workers to borrow from their retirement accounts, so a 401(k) loan might not even be an option for you. Contact your plan administrator, or look at its website to see whether loans are permitted.
You may not borrow from a plan that was set up by a former employer. However, you may roll over that plan's balance into your current employer's plan, and then borrow that money.
The maximum you can borrow from your 401(k) is $50,000 or 50% of the balance, whichever is less. If your plan allows you to take out multiple loans, the total amount borrowed may not exceed that amount or percentage.
Loss of Potential Gains
Because the money you withdrew is no longer in a mutual fund or other type of investment, you may miss out on gains your nest egg otherwise would have had. This missed chance to make more money from that money can be described as an opportunity cost.
If you leave your employer before you repay your loan, any outstanding balance may be treated as a taxable distribution to you unless you repay it entirely within a specific amount of time. Trying to avoid that scenario may leave you in a job longer than you would care to be there.
Giving Up Bankruptcy Protection
Assets of your 401(k) are protected from creditors during bankruptcy proceedings. If you borrow funds from the plan to help pay debts but nonetheless remain in financial trouble and end up filing for bankruptcy, any remaining withdrawn funds may be seized by creditors.
Who Should Borrow From a 401(k)
If you have a large amount of high-interest debt, such as from credit cards, tapping your 401(k) to pay off that debt then paying yourself back at a lower interest rate makes sense.
You may also find yourself in an immediate financial emergency, such as needing money to pay the $6,000 deductible on your high-deductible health insurance plan before you can get medically necessary treatment. In that scenario or a similar one, you may understandably feel that you have no choice but to take the 401(k) loan.
Who Should Not Borrow From a 401(k) Plan
If you are planning to change jobs in the near future, reconsider tapping into your 401(k). And if your reason for taking out a 401(k) loan isn't a true emergency—it's a want, not a need—you would be better off leaving the money where it is.
An Example of a 401(k) Loan
Suppose you have $5,000 in credit card debt and $50,000 in a 401(k) plan. You borrow $5,000 and agree to pay off the debt within five years at an annual percentage rate of 4.25%. At the end of the five years, after having made payments of $92.65 per month, you will have replenished your account and paid yourself $558.83 in interest.
If you were to take the same amount of time to pay off the $5,000 of credit card debt, which had an annual percentage rate of 14.25%, using money left over after meeting your other expenses, you would have paid the card issuer $2,019.47 in interest after having made monthly payments of $116.99.
Alternatives to Borrowing From Your 401(k)
Some 401(k) plans allow hardship withdrawals for circumstances such as preventing eviction from your apartment or making needed repairs to your home. If you take a hardship withdrawal, you will pay federal and possibly state income taxes on the amount you withdraw, as well as a 10% federal tax penalty if you are not yet age 59 1/2.
You might also consider borrowing money from a bank or a relative. If you owe a lot of money, you could consult with a credit counselor to find ways to help you get out of debt. As a last resort, you might decide to hire a bankruptcy attorney to wipe out your debt while preserving your 401(k) and other retirement money.
The CARES Act and 401(k) Loans
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, which became law on March 27, 2020, enables people who had taken out a 401(k) loan to delay for up to one year payments owed from that date through December 31, 2020. Interest would still accrue on your outstanding balance during the period of delayed payments.
The CARES Act also eliminated the 10% federal tax penalty on early withdrawals (not loans) made from your 401(k) through the end of 2020.
The CARES Act enabled employers to increase the amount of a loan that employees could take against their 401(k) to $100,000 or the entire vested portion of their account, whichever was lower. However, that ability expired on September 22, 2020, and the maximum loan amount returned to $50,000 or 50% of the available amount, whichever is less.
To be eligible for any of the provisions of the CARES Act, you, your spouse, or your dependent must have been diagnosed with the coronavirus or its associated disease (COVID-19) using a test approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). You also must have experienced financial hardship for one of the following reasons:
- You were quarantined, furloughed, or laid off, or your work hours were reduced due to the coronavirus pandemic.
- You were unable to work because of a lack of child care due to the coronavirus pandemic.
- You closed or reduced the hours of a business you owned or operated due to the coronavirus pandemic.
If you are able to repay a distribution taken under the CARES Act within three years, you can get a refund on the standard federal income tax you paid on the distribution by filing updated returns.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
How is my loan deducted from my 401(k) balance?
The money is commonly taken from your various 401(k) investments in equal percentages. About 33% would come from each of your investments if you hold three in your account, for example. You may be able to request another arrangement, depending on your plan.
How much are the fees on a 401(k) loan?
Origination fees and maintenance fees are common add-ons to the interest you'll pay on a 401(k) loan. Origination fees were running up to $100 at the close of 2021. Maintenance fees were as much as $50 in the same time period. These are high-end numbers, and you may be able to get away with less.
Does it drop my vested balance if I take a 401(k) loan?
You're pulling money out of each of your 401(k) investments when you take one of these loans, so your overall balance will drop accordingly, but the money will be credited back as you repay the loan.