What to Know Before Buying Inverse and Short ETFs

Woman watching a stock market graph for trading decisions


d3sign / Getty Images

Investors often use inverse exchange-traded funds (ETFs) in advanced trading strategies, but they can help hedge any investor's downside risk or help open a bearish position in a commodity or sector. Due to their more complex nature, you should learn all you can about these types of funds, also known as "short ETFs," before you add any to your current portfolio.

What Is an Inverse ETF?

An inverse ETF is an index ETF that gains value when its correlating index loses value. It does so by holding assets and derivatives, like options, that are used to create profits when the underlying index falls. The Short DOW 30 ETF (DOG) profits when the Dow Jones Industrial Average goes down. The DOG's profits are proportional to the Dow's losses.


Inverse ETFs are risky assets that you should approach with caution, but there are a few ways in which investors can benefit from using them.

Investors with a risky amount of exposure to a certain index, sector, or region can buy an inverse ETF to help hedge that exposure. They can use inverse ETFs in their investing strategy to gain downside exposure in the market. Buying into an inverse ETF can be a less risky way to make that bearish bet if your research has led you to take a bearish stance on an index or sector.

Advantages of Inverse ETFs

Inverse ETFs enjoy many of the same benefits as a standard ETF, including ease of use, lower fees, and tax advantages.

The benefits of inverse ETFs have to do with the alternative ways of placing bearish bets. Not everyone has a trading or brokerage account that allows them to short sell assets. These investors can instead purchase shares in an inverse ETF, which gives them the same investment position they would have by shorting an ETF or index.

Inverse ETFs are thought to be riskier than traditional ETFs, but they're bought outright. This makes them less risky than other forms of bearish bets. There's often unlimited risk when an investor shorts an asset. The investor could end up losing much more than they had anticipated.


An investor can only lose as much as they paid for the ETF with inverse ETFs.

The inverse ETF becomes worthless in a worst-case scenario, but at least you won't owe anyone money, as you might when you short an asset in a traditional sense.

Disadvantages of Inverse ETFs

One of the main risks of inverse ETFs is their lack of popularity. You can buy many types of ETFs, but you won't find a huge selection of inverse ETFs. You'll likely find that inverse ETFs have less liquidity than other ETFs due to fewer options and less demand.

Another risk is that major stock indexes have historically risen when the timescale is long enough. This makes it risky to use inverse ETFs as part of a buy-and-hold strategy. History suggests that the index will bounce back sooner or later from any losses in recent years. Inverse ETF investors need to keep a close eye on the markets. They can attempt to exit their position before the corresponding index rallies.

Funds to Think About

Give some thought to the following inverse index ETFs if you want to hedge some portfolio risk or have a bearish feeling about a certain market index: Short S&P 500 (SH) inversely tracks the S&P 500 Index. Short Russell 2000 (RWM) inversely tracks the Russell 2000 Index.

Watch some other inverse ETFs if you have risk in a certain market sector or have a negative feeling about a certain industry: UltraShort Financials (SKF) inversely tracks the Dow Jones U.S. Financial Index. UltraShort Industrials (SIJ) inversely tracks the Dow Jones U.S. Industrials Index. UltraShort Real Estate (SRS) inversely tracks the Dow Jones U.S. Real Estate Index.

You can even invest in inverse ETFs for certain country and region indexes. UltraShort MSCI Japan (EWV) inversely tracks the MSCI Japan Index. UltraShort FTSE China 50 (FXP) inversely tracks the FTSE China 50 Index.

The Bottom Line

Inverse ETFs can be a powerful tool in your investing strategy, but make sure you perform due diligence before you make any trades. Think about both the pros and the cons. Watch the performance of some inverse ETFs before you get started.

Consult a financial professional or your broker to answer any questions or concerns you may have. Your research and due diligence are the key tools in the world of ETF investing.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is an inverse leveraged ETF?

An inverse leveraged ETF combines the investment goals of a short ETF with the enhanced volatility of a leveraged ETF. For example, the UltraPro Short Dow30 seeks to provide three times the inverse exposure to the Dow Jones Industrial Average. If the Dow falls by about 1%, this particular inverse leveraged ETF would rise by about 3%.

How long should you hold an inverse ETF?

Investment strategies with inverse ETFs will vary, but most use relatively short-term strategies with these products. The stock market tends to go up over time, so a long-term inverse index strategy has historically been a losing strategy despite being profitable on shorter time frames.

The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is being presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance, or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal.

Was this page helpful?
The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Leveraged and Inverse ETFs: Specialized Products With Extra Risks for Buy-and-Hold Investors."

  2. ProShares. "Short Dow30."

  3. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Key Points About Regulation SHO."

  4. S&P Global. "S&P 500."

  5. S&P Global. "Dow Jones Industrial Average."

Related Articles