Sovereign Wealth Funds

Where the World's Richest Countries Invest

sovereign wealth funds
Middle Eastern sovereign wealth funds are some of the largest in the world. Photo: Photo: VCL/Chris Ryan/Getty Images

A sovereign wealth fund is an investment pool of foreign currency reserves owned by a government. The largest investment pools are owned by countries that have a trade surplus, such as China and oil-exporting countries. They take in foreign currencies, primarily U.S. dollars, in exchange for their exports. The funds are then invested to produce the highest return possible.

Sovereign Wealth Funds vs. Central Banks

Before getting into more detail about sovereign wealth funds, it's important to distinguish between sovereign wealth funds and similar—but different—financial entities. Similar funds held by nations' central banks are not sovereign wealth funds because they have different goals. A central bank holds funds to manage the value of its currency, to stimulate the economy, or to prevent inflation. A sovereign wealth fund just wants to earn a high return.

Here are some other funds that may be confused with sovereign wealth funds:

  • Funds held by state-owned companies
  • Government employee pension funds
  • Private wealth funds

How Sovereign Wealth Funds Affect the U.S. Economy

The amount of money held by the largest sovereign wealth funds has more than doubled since September 2007, from $3.265 trillion to $9.1 trillion in 2021. Their asset holdings are now double that of all hedge funds combined.

These funds are big enough to affect overall markets. For example, they took large stakes in Citigroup, Morgan Stanley, and Merrill Lynch during the financial crisis. They contributed to asset bubbles in London and New York real estate. These funds have increasing influence as investors become more sophisticated.

Sovereign Wealth Fund Ranking

Norway's Government Pension Fund is the largest, according to the Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. As of August 2021, it held nearly $1.1 trillion. Its profits are from the state-owned North Sea oil-drilling operation, making it susceptible to drops in oil prices.


High oil prices spurred the growth of large wealth funds between 2007 and 2014. During that time, nearly 60% of their assets were from oil and gas revenues. The 2008 financial crisis barely slowed their growth.

Middle Eastern Funds 

Middle Eastern economies also rely heavily on oil exports. They make up about a third of the total wealth in sovereign funds.

Top 10 Middle Eastern Funds (in billions) Country 2021
Norway Government Pension Fund Global Norway $1,364
China Investment Corp. China $1,222
Kuwait Investment Authority Kuwait $693
Abu Dhabi Investment Authority UAE $649
Hong Kong Monetary Authority Hong Kong $580
GIC Singapore $545
Temasek Holdings Singapore $484
National Council for Social Security China $447
Public Investment Fund Saudi Arabia $430
Investment Corp. of Dubai UAE $422

Chinese Funds

China benefits from a massive export economy that collects large holdings of foreign currency that need to be invested. Export-funded sovereign wealth funds occur in several countries, but the best example may be in China, where there are five sovereign wealth funds. Combined, these funds invest trillions of dollars. China's central bank manages the rest of the government's funds to regulate its currency. State-run corporations and banks invest in these wealth funds as well. Each fund has separate goals. 

  • China Investment Corp: This fund boasts just over $1.2 trillion in assets. As of 2021, roughly 42.5% of this fund's portfolio was made up of "alternative assets" including real estate, infrastructure, and hedge fund investments
  • SAFE Investment Company: This fund, with roughly $417 billion in assets under management, incorporates three investment entities based overseas. They include the Investment Company of the People’s Republic of China in Singapore, Gingko Tree in the UK, and Beryl Datura in the British Virgin Islands.
  • Hong Kong Monetary Authority: With more than $580 billion in assets, this fund invests in the Hang Seng stock market and supports the financial stability of Hong Kong
  • China's National Social Security Fund: This fund currently manages $447 billion in assets. It manages funds recovered from state-owned businesses and other government investment proceeds. It invests mostly in China.
  • China-Africa Development Fund: This fund manages $5 billion worth of assets, all of which are intended to "promote the development of Sino-African commercial ties."


The city-state of Singapore has two wealth funds, holding more than $800 billion in total. The funds come from the high savings and investment rates of the people and businesses in this world-class financial center.

The largest is the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, now the GIC Private Limited fund. It holds $545 billion. It's owned and funded by the government. It’s subdivided into three smaller enterprises:

  • GIC Asset Management: It invests in equities, bonds, foreign exchange, and alternative investments.
  • GIC Real Estate: This fund holds properties around the world, as well as investments in REITs.
  • GIC Special Investments Private Limited: This is one of the world's largest private equity firms. It invests in leveraged buyouts, venture capital, and infrastructure. 

Singapore's other wealth fund is Temasek. It invests $484 billion through 120 subsidiaries. It focuses on investments in Asia and energy-related investments. It purchases stocks instead of direct investments. Temasek opened a New York-based office in 2013. Analysts expected that the new Temasek office would come with a change its strategy—from owning small stakes in blue-chip, publicly-listed companies, to major direct investments.

Was this page helpful?
The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "Top 100 Largest Sovereign Wealth Fund Rankings by Total Assets."

  2. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "China Investment Corporation (CIC)." September 18, 2021.

  3. China Investment Corporation. "Portfolio Structure." Nov. 18, 2019.

  4. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "SAFE Investment Company Limited (SAFE Investment Company." September 18, 2021.

  5. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "The Exchange Fund of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKMA IP)." September 18, 2021.

  6. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "National Council for Social Security Fund of the People's Republic of China (NSSF)." September 18, 2021.

  7. National Council for Social Security Fund. "About the National Council for Social Security Fund." Nov. 18, 2019.

  8. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "China-Africa Development Fund (CAD Fund)." September 18, 2021.

  9. China-Africa Development Fund. "Investment Philosophy." September 18, 2021.

  10. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "GIC Private Limited (GIC)." September 18, 2021.

  11. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. "Temasek Holdings (Temasek)." September 18, 2021.

Related Articles