Where To Find and How To Read 1040 Tax Tables

Using the US Federal Income Tax Tables

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Key Takeaways

  • Tax tables are used to calculate the tax you owe based on your filing status and taxable income.
  • Tax tables are adjusted each year for inflation.
  • You can find the latest tax table, which you'll use in 2023 to file 2022 taxes on the IRS' website, specifically its publication named Tax Year 2022—1040 and 1040-SR Tax and Earned Income Credit Tables.

Tax tables are used to calculate the tax you owe based on your filing status and taxable income. They’re published by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and by each state that collects an income tax.

Tax tables usually change somewhat each year, so taxpayers should be sure that they’re using the correct ones for the year in question. The IRS makes that relatively easy and provides numerous sources for these tables.

US Federal Income Tax Tables

The most basic tax table issued by the IRS delineates tax brackets. They’re based on your filing status and the amount of taxable income you earned in the tax year after you claim various deductions. This table shows you the applicable tax rates for ranges of income based on your filing status—your tax bracket. They show breakpoint income levels above and below which different tax rates will apply.

For example, the 22% tax bracket spans incomes from $41,775 to $89,075 in 2022 for taxpayers who claim single filing status. It increases to $83,550 to $178,150 for married taxpayers who file joint returns.

These figures are indexed for inflation. For example, for 2023 tax returns, which will be filed in 2024, the 22% tax bracket will apply to single-filer incomes from $44,725 to $95,375. The bracket applies to incomes between $89,450 and $190,750 for joint filers.

The more complex tax tables will list the exact tax you owe for your total amount of taxable income. Still others will calculate capital gains tax or the earned income tax credit you might qualify for.


The federal tax tables are embedded in many popular tax preparation software packages, which can make your tax preparation job much easier.

Where Can I Find Federal Tax Tables?

The IRS provides a much more comprehensive table along with some very helpful instructions for using them on pages 3 through 15 of its publication Tax Year 2022—1040 and 1040-SR Tax and Earned Income Credit Tables.

It’s also available in the instructions for Form 1040. These resources are far more detailed than the table that simply breaks down the spans of income that apply to each tax-bracket percentage.

How To Read the 1040 Tax Tables

First, you'll need to know what your taxable income is. You can find that on Line 15 of your Form 1040 for 2022.

Next, scroll down through the tax tables found in the IRS publication mentioned above to find your taxable income in the two far-left columns. Incomes are grouped in ranges of $25 at low income levels, and increase to ranges of $50 at incomes of $3,000 or more. The tables detail income ranges up to $100,000. Separate tax computation worksheets are provided if your taxable income is more than $100,000.

The next four columns to the right of these income ranges tell you your total tax—not just the percentage rate for each span of your income—depending on your filing status: single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, or head of household.

For example, if your income is $51,500, then you would go to this portion of the 2022 IRS tax tables pictured below to find your salary range in the middle column, then look across to the right in the same column to determine the amount of tax owed based on your filing status.

2022 Tax Tables showing incomes from 48,000 to 54,000

IRS / The Balance


The tables contained in the 1040 and 1040-SR Tax and Earned Income Credit Tables guide group income spans by $1,000 increments with their own separate headings, making them easier to find.

As another illustration, if your total taxable income for the year was $38,885, you would scroll down to the line showing the $38,850 to $38,900 range. Moving to the columns to the right, you would see that you’d owe:

  • $4,460 if you’re a single filer
  • $4,254 if you’re married and filing a joint return
  • $4,460 if you’re married filing separate returns
  • $4,372 if you’re filing as head of household

What To Do if You Need Help With the 1040 Tax Tables

The IRS provides multiple free resources on its website if you need help preparing your tax return or have questions about a tax issue. These resources include publications, forms, instructions, non-English language assistance, and even live help, in some cases. Tax preparation options include Free File, the Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program, and the Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program.

Tax Preparation Help

Free File is a partnership between the IRS and several tax software providers that will prepare your tax return for free if your income was $73,000 or less. You won’t have to worry about nailing down your tax on a table because the software program will figure everything out for you.

The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program offers free tax help to people who generally made $58,000 or less as of tax year 2022—the return you’ll file in 2023—as well as people with disabilities, and limited-English-speaking taxpayers who need help preparing their tax returns.

The Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program offers free tax help for taxpayers who are 60 years of age and older. TCE volunteers specialize in answering questions about pensions and retirement-related issues relevant to seniors.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What tax table do you use to determine your capital gains rate?

There are just three tax brackets for capital gains. Individual filers who make up to $40,400 ($80,800 for married couples filing jointly) have a 0% rate; they don't pay capital gains. Those who make between $41,675 and $459,750 ($83,350 to $517,200 for joint filers) pay a capital gains rate of 15%. Anyone who earns more than that will pay 20% on capital gains.

Where do my tax dollars go?

The federal government has a website where you can explore government spending. In 2022, federal tax dollars went toward Medicare (16.4%), Social Security (14.3%), Defense (13.1%), Health (11.9%). Other major spending categories included Income Security (9.7%) and Net Interest (8.1%).

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The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. IRS. “IRS Provides Tax Inflation Adjustments for Tax Year 2022.”

  2. IRS. "IRS Provides Tax Inflation Adjustments for Tax Year 2023."

  3. IRS. “1040 Instructions.”

  4. IRS. "Free File: Do Your Federal Taxes Online for Free."

  5. IRS. "Free Tax Return Preparation for Qualifying Taxpayers."

  6. IRS. "Topic No. 409 Capital Gains and Losses."

  7. USAspending.gov. "Government Spending Explorer." Select "FY 2022."

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