Global Investment Risk

Important global risk factors to consider

Figurine walking on a on a global investment risk chart with a tight rope

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Global investing has become increasingly important as American companies account for a smaller and smaller portion of global revenue and profit. As of April 2022, domestic equities on U.S. exchanges accounted for nearly 42% of global market capitalization. The leading mutual fund providers recommend about 40% allocation to non-U.S. stocks.

In this article, we will look at the risks associated with global investments and whether the benefits outweigh those risks.

Key Takeaways

  • Global investment risk encompasses many different international risk factors, including currency risks, political risks, and interest rate risks.
  • Currency risk is associated with fluctuations in a foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar.
  • Political risk is associated with foreign governments and politics; for instance, political changes may lead to business losses.
  • Interest rate risk consists of changes to monetary policy; an increase in interest rates could have a negative impact on the value of financial assets.

What Is Global Investment Risk?

Global investment risk is a broad term encompassing many different types of international risk factors, including currency risks, political risks, and interest rate risks. International investors should carefully consider these risk factors before investing in global stocks.

The three major global investment risks include:

Currency Risk

This risk is associated with fluctuations in a foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar. For example, a foreign company may report 25% earnings growth, but if its local currency depreciates by 10% relative to the U.S. dollar, the real growth rate is just 15% when the profits are converted back into U.S. dollars.

Political Risk

This risk is associated with foreign governments and politics. For example, Brazil's Petrobras was involved in a corruption scandal that led to jail time for several company executives and high-profile politicians, including the popular former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. The scandal contributed to catastrophic losses for the company from 2014 to 2016, including $10 billion in losses in 2015 alone.

Interest Rate Risk

This risk consists of unfavorable changes to monetary policy. For instance, an emerging market economy may decide that it is growing too quickly and act to contain inflation by hiking interest rates. These dynamics could have a negative impact on the value of financial assets that are priced based upon those interest rates.

The best way to mitigate global investment risk is through diversified global portfolios. For example, the all-world ex-US funds provide exposure to a variety of different countries and asset classes around the world, which mitigates the risks associated with any individual country.

Measuring Global Investment Risk

There are many different ways to quantify global investment risk, including both quantitative and qualitative measures. International investors should consider a combination of these approaches when evaluating global investment risk.

The most common quantitative risk measurements include:


Beta measures an investment’s volatility compared to a benchmark index. For example, U.S. investors may measure the volatility of foreign stocks by comparing it to the S&P 500 benchmark index via a beta coefficient. Higher betas represent more volatility.

The Sharpe Ratio

The Sharpe Ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of a fund over time. The ratio is calculated by dividing a fund’s average return minus the risk-free rate of return by the standard deviation. Higher Sharpe Ratios present a better risk-adjusted return.

Global investment risk may also be qualitatively assessed using methods like:

Credit Ratings

They provide insights into a country’s credit quality. For example, a country that has a low credit rating may not have the flexibility needed to spark growth, which could lead to a decline in equity valuations.

Analyst Ratings

These may provide specific insights into individual international equities. Oftentimes, these ratings include price targets and other factors to consider, although sell-side analyst ratings should be taken with a grain of salt.

Investors should consider how these factors play into their portfolios. Retirement portfolios may want to stick to less volatile stocks, while younger investors may want to consider adding volatility since they may provide greater long-term return potential.

Is Global Investing Worth the Risk?

Global diversification helps lower average portfolio volatility over the long term. In the short term, investors can also participate in whichever regional market is outperforming. The U.S. may lead the world during some periods, but there are invariably other periods when another country or market will post the best returns. For example, exposure to diversified non-U.S. equities during the mid-1980s would have outperformed domestic-only portfolios.

Currency movements may also help enhance diversification since they aren’t correlated with equity performance. A lower correlation with U.S. equities means that investors may have more even returns over time.

The Bottom Line

Global investing has become increasingly necessary over time, but investors should carefully consider global investment risks. The good news is that there are many different tools available to measure these risks and ensure the right mix for any portfolio. Vanguard recommends investing about 40% of a portfolio's stock allocation in international stocks, and 30% of the portfolio's bond allocation to international bonds. For example, if a portfolio has 30% of its assets invested in stocks, 40% of 30% would equate to an international stock allocation equaling roughly 12% of the portfolio, and so on.

The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance, or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal.

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  1.  Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association. "Research Quarterly: Equities."

  2. Vanguard. "International Investing."

  3. Americas Quarterly. "Brazil’s Petrobras: Not Dead After All."

  4. Morningstar. "Revisiting the Case for International."

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