Taxes What Is the Kiddie Tax? By Beverly Bird Updated on January 9, 2023 Reviewed by Ebony J. Howard Reviewed by Ebony J. Howard Ebony Howard is a certified public accountant and a QuickBooks ProAdvisor tax expert. She has been in the accounting, audit, and tax profession for more than 13 years, working with individuals and a variety of companies in the health care, banking, and accounting industries. learn about our financial review board Fact checked by Yasmin Ghahremani In This Article View All In This Article Kiddie Tax: Definition and Example How It Works Requirements How Much Is the Kiddie Tax? Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Photo: JGI Jamie Grill / Getty Images Definition The kiddie tax is a rule that requires that some investment income earned by minors be reported on the child’s own tax return at a rate equal to that of their parents' marginal tax rate. Key Takeaways The kiddie tax rule requires that a minor’s unearned investment income be taxed at their parents’ highest tax rate once it hits a certain level, rather than at their own rate.It's intended to prevent parents from avoiding taxes by giving their children large amounts of stock or other investments. The kiddie tax applies to children 18 and under, or dependent full-time students between the ages of 19 and 24.Parents can elect to include their child’s unearned income on their own tax returns in some cases rather than have their child file their own tax return. Purpose of the Kiddie Tax The kiddie tax—also known as the tax on a child's investment and other unearned income—is the tax liability on a child’s unearned income, or investment income. The tax is actually aimed at parents who might want to take advantage of their child’s lower tax bracket. It’s intended to discourage them from transferring ownership of their own income-producing assets to a child with a much lower tax bracket. For example, you might own an asset that produces $50,000 in investment income annually. If you fell into the 37% marginal tax bracket, you would have to pay $18,500 or 37% of that money in tax to the IRS if you were to report it on your own tax return. Now, if your child had no other income, their tax bracket for $50,000 may be 22%. Your child would therefore hypothetically pay only $11,000 in taxes (22% of $50,000) if you transferred ownership to them. Your family would save $7,500 of that investment income—the difference between the $18,500 you would owe and the $11,000 your child would owe. In reality, the kiddie tax prevents such moves. It requires that the income be taxed at your bracket regardless of whether your child owns the assets. Note The kiddie tax applies to unearned income, including capital gains, interest, and dividends earned in the child’s name, but not earned income such as wages they might earn. How the Kiddie Tax Works The kiddie tax applies to a minor’s unearned income over $2,300 for tax year 2022. (The limit is $2,500 in 2023.) The child’s age factors in as well. The kiddie tax only applies if your child was 18 or under, or was a full-time student aged 19 to 24 whose earned income for the year was not more than half what you paid for their support. At least one parent must be living as of the last day of the tax year, the child must be required to file a tax return, and they can’t file a joint return with a spouse if they happen to be married. The child does not have to be claimed as your dependent on your taxes. They can be your biological child, adopted, or a stepchild. Here’s how a child’s unearned income is taxed: The first $1,150: not taxed because of the standard $1,150 deductionThe next $1,150 (of a total of $2,300): taxed at the child’s marginal tax rateUnearned income over $2,300: taxed at the parent’s marginal tax rate. The rules change and become much more complicated if your child also has earned income from a job. You might want to consult with a tax professional if this is the case. Requirements for the Kiddie Tax Your child must file a tax return if the kiddie tax applies to them, and they must additionally complete and submit IRS Form 8615 with the return. Note You can report your child's unearned income on your own tax return under some circumstances. Your child cannot have any earned income (such as wages) in addition to the investment income, and their investment income can’t exceed a certain amount ($11,050 for 2022). File IRS Form 8814 to make this election. Your child also must be younger than 19 at the end of the tax year if you want to report their unearned income on your tax form, and they can't have made any estimated tax payments or have carried over a refund from a previous year to apply to the current year. Their income was not subject to backup withholding. How Much Is the Kiddie Tax? The kiddie tax rate uses parents' marginal tax rate or the rate they pay on their top dollars of income, so any additional income would fall into this bracket until it reaches the next highest tax bracket. The 2022 tax brackets range from 10% to 37%. Your child’s unearned income might additionally be subject to the net investment income tax at a rate of 3.8% of their investment income, or 3.8% of the amount that their modified adjusted gross income exceeds a threshold set by their filing status. The kiddie tax was even more formidable in tax years 2018 and 2019 before the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act’s provision for it was repealed. You can file an amended tax return, Form 1040X, in 2021 for one or both of those years if you paid the kiddie tax at the higher TCJA rates. Substitute your own marginal tax rate for the estate and trust tax rate. This could even potentially result in a tax refund. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) What triggers the kiddie tax? The kiddie tax is triggered if your child makes above a certain amount from interest, dividends, and other unearned income. For 2022, that level is $2,300. What is the kiddie tax for 2022? The first $1,150 of a child's unearned income is not taxed because it qualifies for the standard deduction. The next $1,150 is taxed at the child's marginal income tax rate. After that $2,300, the child's investments are taxed at the parent's marginal tax rate. In 2023, the limits rise to $1,250 and $2,500. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Tell us why! Other Submit Sources The Balance uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. IRS. "Instructions for Form 8615." TaxNotes. "IRS Releases Inflation-Adjusted Items for 2023." Charles Schwab. "Understanding the Kiddie Tax." IRS. "Topic No. 553 Tax on a Child's Investment and Other Unearned Income (Kiddie Tax)." Internal Revenue Service. "IRS provides tax inflation adjustments for tax year 2022." Accessed Dec. 9, 2021.